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FAQ's

Systron Donner has compiled the most Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) so that you can find answers and solutions to meet your requirements and interests. A general question category and specific questions by product are provided to help simplify this process. You can also refer to any of these FAQs by the assigned subject code in your direct inquiries for fastest response. Of course, we invite your specific questions directly through our “Contact Support” link. Simply click-onto this link and enter a question that is specifically tailored to your needs.

 

General:

G-1: What type of motion sensors are manufactured by Systron Donner Inertial?

G-2: How are SDI's inertial sensors produced?

G-3: How do micomachined quartz rate sensors compare to other gyroscope technologies that are currently available? 

G-4: What is the MTBF (Mean Time Between Failure) of SDI quartz gyroscopes?

G-5: Is there a Glossary of Technical Terms?  

 

QRS11:

Q-1: What types of applications has the Model QRS11 been qualified for?

Q-2: What is the primary difference between the Standard (-100) and high performance (-101) versions of the Model QRS11?  

Q-3: What are the Self-Test features available with the QRS11? 

Q-4: What gyro performance class is the Model QRS11? 

Q-5: Does the QRS have overrange capability?  

Q-6: Are there performance options available with the QRS11?

Q-7: Can the Model QRS11 be operated beyond its published operating temperature range? 

  

QRS14:

GC-1: What gyro performance class is the QRS14?

 GC-2: What is the difference between the -102 and -103 configurations indicated on the QRS14 data sheet?

 GC-3: Does the QRS14 have a Built-In-Test (BIT) Capability?

 GC-4: How do I determine the unit's scaling (Scale Factor)?

 GC-5: The QRS14 Data Sheet indicates that the Scale Factor calibration is ±2% of value. What does this mean?

 GC-6: Are there any performance options available with the QRS14?

  

QRS116:

Q-1: What are the differences between the QRS116 and the QRS11?

Q-2: What type of applications is the Model QRS116 best suited for?

Q-3: What are the options available with the QRS116?

Q-4: What type of Self-Test features is available with the QRS116?

Q-5: What gyro performance class is the Model QRS116?

Q-6: Does the QRS116 have an overrange capability?

Q-7: Can the Model QRS116 be operated beyond its published upper operating temperature limit of +85°C?

 

SDG500:

SD-1SD-1: Does the SDG500 have a Built-In-Test (BIT) Capability?

SD-2: Are there any performance options available with the SDG500?

SD-3: Are there other rate ranges available?

 

SDG1000:

SDG-1SDG-1: Does the SDG1000 have a Built-In-Test (BIT) Capability?

SDG-2: Are there any performance options available with the SDG1000?

SDG-3: Are there other rate ranges available?

SDG-4: Why are there two (2) temperature sensor outputs?

 

LCG50:

LC-1: What are the primary applications the LCG50 is designed for?

LC-2: Does the LCG50 have a Built-In-test (BIT) Capability?

LC-3: Are there any performance options available with the LCG50?

LC-4: The Input/Output(I/O) is not indicated on the LCG50 Data Sheet. How is the LCG50 I/O implemented?

 

HZ1 (HORIZON):

H-1: What are the primary applications the HZ1 is designed for?

H-2: What is the difference between the -100 and -100A configurations indicated on the Horizon data sheet?

H-3: Does the HZ1 have a Built-In-Test (BIT) Capability?

H-4: How do I determine the unit's scaling (Scale Factor)?

H-5: The HZ1 Data Sheet indicates that the Scale Factor calibration is ≤2% of value. What does this mean?

H-6: Are there any performance options available with the HZ1?

H-7: What is the purpose of the Voltage Reference Pin (Pin #3)?

  

MOTIONPAK® II:

MP-1: If I do not require all six Degrees-of-Freedom (6DoF), can I order the MotionPak® II with less than 6 sensors?

MP-2: Are there any performance options available with the MotionPak II?

MP-3: Is the Standard operation and Single Supply Feature common to one unit?

 

QRS28:

QR-1: What are the primary applications the QRS28 is designed for?

QR-2: Does the QRS28 have a Built-In-Test (BIT) Capability?

QR-3: Are there any performance options available with the QRS28?

QR-4: How long are the Flying Leads that exit from the Filter Board?

QR-5: Are there other rate ranges available?

 

MOTIONPAK®:

M-1: If I do not require all six Degrees-of-Freedom (6DoF); can I order the MotionPak® with less than 6 sensors?

M-2: What other MotionPak® options are available?

 

General:

G-1: What type of motion sensors are manufactured by Systron Donner Inertial?

Systron Donner Inertial manufactures a complete line of micromachined, solid-state gyroscopes and inertial subsystems for automotive, commercial/industrial, and aerospace & defense applications. Our family of quartz inertial sensors use a one piece, micromachined inertial sensing element to measure angular rotational velocity or linear acceleration. These sensors produce an output signal proportional to the rate of rotation or acceleration sensed.

G-2: How are SDI’s inertial sensors produced?

SDI’s unique quartz inertial sensors are micromachined using photolithographic processes, and are at the forefront of MEMS (Micro ElectroMechanical Systems) technology. These processes are similar to those used to produce millions of digital quartz watches each year. The use of piezoelectric quartz material simplifies the sensing element, resulting in exceptional stability over time and temperature, and exceptional reliability and durability.

G-3: How do micomachined quartz rate sensors compare to other gyroscope technologies that are currently available?

SDI’s innovative solid-state gyroscopes utilize a one-piece sensing element which is micromachined from pure crystalline quartz. Unlike traditional mechanical gyroscopes which are mechanically complex, contain hundreds of individual precision parts, and have a limited life, SDI’s quartz sensors feature a monolithic sensing element with no known modes of wearout.

SDI quartz gyroscopes have many advantages over other solid-state gyroscope technologies. First, their construction is extremely simple...the sensing element is just one piece! Fiber Optic Gyroscopes (FOG) and Ring Laser Gyroscopes (RLG) tend to be much more complex, time consuming to build, and considerably more expensive. The sensing elements of SDI’s quartz gyroscopes can be mass produced at a very low recurring cost using methods similar to those employed to fabricate millions of quartz references for watches each year.

G-4: What is the MTBF (Mean Time Between Failure) of SDI quartz gyroscopes?

SDI’s quartz gyroscopes are micromachined from pure crystalline quartz. Since there are no moving parts, and hence no wearout modes, they feature an unlimited life.

Standard MIL-HDBK-217 MTBF calculations, depending upon the environment used, are typically better than 400,000 hours for a single axis sensor. In commercial aircraft applications, SDI’s quartz gyroscopes have accumulated over 1,500,000 hours of operation without a single failure. In US Navy shipboard antenna stabilization applications, SDI’s quartz gyroscopes have accumulated over 2,000,000 hours of continuous operation without a single failure.

In contrast, some conventional mechanical gyroscopes must be replaced after only a few thousand hours of operation!

 

MODEL QRS11:

Q-1: What types of applications has the Model QRS11 been qualified for?

The Model QRS11 is currently being used in literally hundreds of demanding applications. Qualified for, but not limited to, fixed-wing and helicopter flight control, missile flight control, aircraft instrumentation, aircraft and shipboard antenna stabilization, airborne countermeasure systems and space. 

Q-2: What is the primary difference between the Standard (-100) and High Performance (-101) versions of the Model QRS11?

Both QRS11 versions are the same basic high reliability Quartz Sensing Element. The primary difference between the "standard" performance and the "high performance" versions is the maximum possible change in bias offset (DC) over the operating temperature range. For example, the bias offset of a Standard version of a Model QRS11 with a full scale range of ±100°/second could change by up to 1.8°/second over the operating temperature range. For the High Performance version, the maximum possible change would be <=0.35°/second.

Actual QRS11 performance, for either version, is typically well within the foregoing limits.

Q-3: What are the Self-Test features available with the QRS11?

The Model QRS11 Quartz Rate Sensor incorporates dual self-test circuitry to determine the functionality of the unit, for both monitoring and for failure detection.  An individual Built-In-Test (BIT) signal is produced by the drive system.  The BIT signal provides a continous monitor indicating that the QRS11 sensing element is functioning properly.

To provide a definitive test of the remainder of the signal processing circuitry, a Self-Test Input is provided.  An external voltage signal applied to the Self-Test input will command a specific change in the Rate Output.  The expected change in the Rate Output indicates that the entire signal processing chain within the QRS is performing properly.

Q-4: What gyro performance class is the Model QRS11?

The QRS11 is often referred to as "tactical grade" sensor.  This means that the QRS11 is ideally suited for aircraft control, missile control, damping systems, short-term guidance of tactical missiles, platform stabilization, and as an adjunct for GPS navigation systems.

Q-5: Does the QRS have overrange capability?

The Model QRS11 has built-in overrange capability of a minimum of 120% of the stated full scale output. For example, a QRS11 with a ±100°/second full scale output, will remain perfectly linear up to at least ±120°/second. At some point above ±120°/second, the output signal will reach its limit, and remain in this "saturated" condition until the overrange angular rate is no longer present.  During the time the overrange rate is present, the output signal will remain stable and will not "fold-back".  When the angular rate drops below the point of saturation, the output signal will once again indicate the true angular rate.  Extremely high angular rates (e.g.k 5,000 to 10,000°/second, or more) will not damage the Model QRS11.

Q-6: Are there performance options available with the QRS11?

The Model QRS11 can be ordered with various performance options to accommodate the requirements of a specific application. In addition to the High Performance option, other options include Non-Standard Rate Ranges (±10 to ±3600°/sec), Extended Bandwidth, Low Noise, Extended Operating Temperature range, Flying Leads, and Modeling Data.  Consult factory for other options; such as the Tri-Axis Mounting Bracket.

Q-7: Can the Model QRS11 be operated beyond its published operating temperature range?

The QRS11 can be safely operated within the stated storage temperature range of -55°C to +100°C. However, full compliance to the published specifications cannot be guaranteed when operated beyond the specified operating temperature range limits.

 

QRS116:

Q-1: What are the differences between the QRS116 and the QRS11?

The Similiarities - The QRS116 and the QRS11 share the same physical configuration and mounting rquirements. The Input/Output pin assignments are the same except for the functionality of the BIT and Self-Test features.

The Differences - The QRS116 exceeds the QRS11 in several performance parameters. Those parameters are Bias performance versus temperature. Short Term Bias Stability, Output Noise, Operating Temperature extremes, Vibration (operating), and Shock survival.

Q-2: What type of application is the Model QRS116 best suited for?

In addition to the many QRS11 appliations (see QRS11 FAQ) the QRS116 ecxels where very low noise and Bias tability requirements are mandated.

Q-3: What are the options available with the QRS116?

The Model QRS116 can be ordered with the following options: Several Non-Standard Rate Ranges from ±10 to ±2000°/sec, Temperature Modeling Data, and Flying Leads.

Q-4: What type of Self-Test features is available with the QRS116?

The Model QRS116 Quartz Rate Sensor incorporates dual self-test circuitry to determine the functionality of the unit, for both monitoring and for failure detection. An individual Built-In-Test (BIT) signal is produced by the drive system. The BIT Output signal provides a continuous monitor indicating that the QRS116 sensing element is functioning properly. To provide a definitive test of the remainder of the signal processing circuitry, and Initiated BIT input terminal is provided. By grounding this pin, the specified change in the Rate Output will indicate that the entire signal processing chain within the QRS is performing properly.

Q-5: What gyro performance class is the Model QRS116?

As with the QRS11, the QRS116 can also be referred to as "tactical grade" sensor. However, because of the QRS116's excellent Bias stability and low noise attributes, the QRS116 may be used in higher levels of Attitude, Heading and Reference (AHRS) systems, GPS aided navigation systems, etc.

Q-6: Does the QRS116 have any overrange capability?

The model QRS116 has a built-in overrange capability of a minimum of 120% of the stated full scale output. For example, a QRS116 with a ±120°/second. At some point above ±120°/second, the output signal will reach its limit, and remain in this "saturated" condition until the overrange angular rate is no longer present. During the time the overrange rate is present, the output signal will remain stable and will not "fold-back". When the angular rate drops below the point of saturation, the output signal will once again indicate the true angular rate. Extremely high angular rates (e.g., 5,000 to 10,000°/sec, or more) will not damage the Model QRS116.

Q-7: Can the Model QRS116 be operated beyond its published upper operating temperature limit of +85°C?

The QRS116 can be safely operated beyonod stated storage upper temperature limit of 85°C.  Hoewver, full compliance to the published specifications cannot be guaranteed when operated beyond the specified operating temperature range limits.

 

QRS14:

 GC-1: What gyro performance class is the QRS14?

The QRS14 is a mid-performance gyro between the QRS11 and Horizon sensors and is generally used as a high performance instrument grade gyro.  However, successful applications include platform stabilization, Short term Navigation, various control applications, etc.

GC-2: What is the difference between the -102 and -103 configurations indicated on the QRS14 data sheet?

The -102 version operates from a signle-sided power supply of +9 Vdc to +18 Vdc.  This configuration is most useful for applications which use battery power as the supply voltage.  In the -102 configuration, the Input current is less than 20 mA.

The -103 version operates from a two-sided power supply of + and - 9 Vdc to + and - 9 Vdc to + and -18 Vdc and offers a higher signal resolution than the -102.  In the -103 configuration, the Input Current is less than 20 mA each supply.

Both versions feature internal power regulation.

GC-3: Does the QRS14 have a Built-In-Test (BIT) Capability?

Yes, both QRS14 configurations have a BIT capability.  The Built-In-Test is activated by grounding Pin 7 that causes a step increase in rate output (Pin 5) of a 0.5 Vdc (nominal) for the -102 version, and 1.0 Vdc (nominal) for the -103 version. Activating the BIT function verifies the QRS14's electronics are functioning properly. Note that when Pin 7 is grounded, the BIT output (step change) is superimposed on the true rate output signal of the QRS14.

GC-4: How do I determine the unit's scaling (Scale Factor)?

For the -102, the scaling can be calculated by dividing the rate range into 1.5 Vdc (voltage "swing" above and below the +2.5 Vdc Bias). For example, a -102 QRS14 with a rate range of ±100°/sec., the nominal Scale Factor would be 0.015 V/°/sec.

For the -103, the scaling can be calculated by dividing the rate range into 5.0 Vdc (voltage "swing" above and below the Bias of 0.0 Volts (nominal). For example, a -103 QRS14 with a rate range of ±100°/sec, the nominal Scale Factor would be 0.02V/°/sec.

GC-5: The QRS14 Data Sheet indicates that the Scale Factor calibration is ±2% of value. What does this mean?

The Scale Factor is factory calibrated at ±22°C.  The actual Scale Factor for a specific unit will be + or - 2% at +22±°C of the calculated value (see FAQ #4).

GC-6: Are there any performance options available with the QRS14?

No, except for the available rate ranges.

 

SDG500:

SD-1: Does the SDG500 have a Built-In-Test (BIT) Capability?

Yes, the BIT Output is available on Pin #10. The BIT is also referred to as the Tine Motion Detector (TMD) in the SDG500 User's Guide.  A Self-Test input is also available. The Self-Test is activitated by grounding Pin #8 to Signal Return (Pin #5) and monitoring the Rate Output (Pin #6) for a "step" voltage change of +1.5 Vdc. The voltage change indicates that the SDG500 is functioning properly.

SD-2: Are there any performance options available with the SDG500?

No.

SD-3: Are there other rate ranges available?

The SDG500 is currently available in one (1) rate range: i.e., ±100°/sec. Other rate ranges would require a special order and would be quoted separately. Consult factory for details on the other rate range limits.

 

SDG1000:

SDG-1: Does the SDG1000 have a Built-In-Test (BIT) Capability?

Yes, the BIT Output is available on Pin #7. The BIT is also referred to as the Tine Motion Detector (TMD) in the SDG1000 User's Guide (see SDG1000 User's Guide for the specified signal amplitude signifying sensor normal operation).

SDG-2: Are there any performance options available with the SDG1000?

No.

SDG-3: Are there other rate ranges available?

The SDG1000 is currently available in one (1) rate range; i.e., ±200°/sec. Other rate ranges would require a special order and would be quoted separately. Consult factory for details on the other rate range limits.

SDG-4: Why are there two (2) temperature sensor outputs?

Two (2) temperature sensor outputs are provided with the SDG1000 for precise parameter modeling. The temperature sensors may be used separately or in conjunction to precisely model Bias and Scale Factor variations as a result of environments.

 

LCG50:

LC-1: What are the primary applications the LCG50 is designed for?

The LCG50 is designed as a low-cost very low-noise angular rate sensor intended primarily for commercial/industrial OEM imbedded applications. Typical applications include instrumentation, robotics, control systems, etc.

LC-2: Does the LCG50 have a Built-In-Test (BIT) Capability?

No.

LC-3: Are there any performance options available with the LCG50?

No

LC-4: the Input/Output (I/O) is not indicated on the LCG50 Data Sheet.  How is the LCG50 I/O implemented?

The Input/Output (I/O) description can be found on Page 5 of the LCG50 User's Guide.

 

HZ1 (HORIZON):

 H-1: What are the primary applications the HZ1 is designed for?

The HZ1 is a low-cost angular rate sensor intended primarily for commercial/industrial OEM applications. Typical applications include the stabilization of airborne/shipboard antenna platforms, stabilization systems, GPS augmentation for vehicle location systems, manufacturing automation, precision farming, robotics, etc.

H-2: What is the difference between the -100 and -100A configuration indicated on the Horizon data sheet?

The -100 version has a Bandwidth of >60 Hz and is available in the rate ranges of ±100 and ±200°/sec. The -100A version has a Bandwidth of 18 Hz and is only available in a rate range of ±90°/sec. Both versions feature internal power regulation.

H-3: Does the HZ1 have a Built-In-Test (BIT) Capability?

No.

H-4: How do I determine the unit's scaling (Scale Factor)?

The scaling can be calculated by dividing the rate range into 2.0 Vdc 9voltage "swing" above and below the +2.5 Vdc Bias). For example, a HZ1 with a rate range of ±100°/sec, the nominal Scale Factor would be 0.020 V/°/sec.

H-5: The HZ1 Data Sheet indicates that the Scale factor calibration is ≤2% of value. What does this mean?

The Scale Factor is factory calibrated at +22°C. The actual Scale Factor for a specific unit will be less than + or - 2% at +22°C of the calculated value (see FAQ #4).

H-6: Are there any performance options available with the HZ1?

No.

H-7: What is the purpose of the Voltage Reference pin (Pin #3)?

The voltage reference pin (Pin #3) provides a stable 2.5 Vdc reference output which allows for differential monitoring of the Rate Output signal (Pin #2).

 

QRS28:

QR-1: What are the primary applications the QRS28 is designed for?

The QRS28 is designed for applications where an extremely small two-axis angular rate sensor is required.

QR-2: Does the QRS28 have a Built-In-Test (BIT) Capability?

No.

QR-3: Are there any performance options available with the QRS28?

Yes, the QRS28 can be ordered with two (2) levels of reduced "X" Axis (Input Axis) alignment. Consult factory for details.

QR-4: How long are the Flying Leads that exit from the Filter Board?

The Leads are seven (7) inches in length. The wire type is specified as Mil-W-22579/11-26-6 (26 AWG, STRD. CuAg TFE, silver plated copper strands, Teflon insulated, High temperature, 200°C, 600 Vdc rated).

QR-5: Are there other rate ranges available?

The QRS28 is currently available in three (3) rate range; i.e., ±100, 200, and 400°/sec. Other rate ranges would require a special order and would be quoted separately. Consult factory for details on rate range limits.

 

 MOTIONPAK®  II:

 

MP-1: If I do not require all six Degrees-of-Freedom (6DoF), can I order the MotionPak® II with less than 6 sensors?

No.

MP-2: Are there any performance options available with the MotionPak® II?

Yes, the MotionPak® II is available with two accelerometer "g" ranges. A ±1.5g or +3.0g range.

MP-3: Is the Standard Operation and Single Supply Feature common to one unit?

Yes, the MotionPak® II can be energized by either selection.

 MOTIONPAK®:

 

 M-1: If I do not require all six Degrees-of-Freedom (6DoF); can I order the MotionPak® with less than 6 sensors?

Yes. In addition to a complete 6DoF configuration (all six sensors), the MotionPak® can be ordered without any rate sensors or with one, two, or three axes, and without any accelerometers or with one, two, or three axes.  Asix placement of the sensors and the selected rate and acceleration ranges is specified by the customers. For more details and ordering information, please contact the factory.

M-2: What other MotionPak®options are available?

The MotionPak® is available with several non-standard angular rate sensor and linear accelerometer ranges to accommodate the application. Several of the performance options available with the QRS11 (rate sensor used in the MotionPak®) are also available with the  MotionPak®.  For more details and ordering information, please contact the factory.